Volume 8, No. 2

Authors: Černohorski, Branimir; Tušak, Matej; Šugman, Rajko

Motivational and value orientation in Slovenian top sport, according to differences between sex and type of sport

Motivacijske in vrednotne usmeritve v slovenskem vrhunskem športu z vidika razlik med spoloma in vrsto športa

Abstract (English)

The purpose of the research was to find out the differences in some segments of motivational and value system of top sport according to the sex and type of sport. 341 male and female athletes with the status of the world, international and perspective class in the Republic of Slovenia and engaging in 34 sport activities participated in the research. We used four questionnaires to test the population. The questionnaires measured three areas of motivation: competitive-need achievement, sport orientation, self-motivation, and the area of values. We wanted to discover differences and similarities among male and female athletes and among individual and team sports in all three areas of motivation and values. We did this by using multifactor analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. The factor analysis served as the means to discover whether the selected population of top sport athletes differs in values from the non-selected population. The multifactor analysis of variance has showed that female athletes in competitive-need achievement significantly differ from male athletes only in the motive to avoid failure. The comparison of values between top male and top female athletes showed some gender-oriented differences that are induced by society. Team sports show significant differences in competitiveness and win orientation. The thesis that value system does not differ a lot was confirmed via factor analysis of values in top sport and in a non-selected population. Discriminant analysis demonstrates the existence of two typical discriminant functions which differentiate athletes according to the sport type and gender. This emphasises the need for individual approach in the process of training and competing.

Keywords (English)

motivation, values, top sport, competitive-need achievement motivation, sport orientations, self-motivation.

Abstract (Slovenian)

Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti razlike v nekaterih izsekih motivacijskega in vrednotnega prostora vrhunskega športa, glede na spol in vrsto športa. V raziskavo je bilo zajetih 341 športnikov in športnic 34. športov, ki imajo status svetovnega, mednarodnega in perspektivnega razreda v Republiki Sloveniji. Na tem vzorcu smo uporabili štiri vprašalnike, ki so merili tri področja motivacije (tekmovalno-storilnostno motivacijo, športne usmeritve in samomotivacijo) in področje vrednot. Za ugotavljanje razlik in podobnosti med športniki in športnicami ter razlik in podobnosti med individualnimi in moštvenimi športi na vseh treh področjih motivacije in področju vrednot, smo uporabili večfaktorsko analizo variance in diskriminantno analizo. S faktorsko analizo pa smo želeli ugotoviti, ali se selekcionionirana populacija vrhunskih športnikov v vrednotnem prostoru razlikuje od neselekcioniranih vzorcev populacije. Večfaktorska analiza variance je pokazala, da se športnice v tekmovalno-storilnostni motivaciji od športnikov statistično značilno razlikujejo le v motivu za izogibanje neuspeha. Primerjava vrednotnega prostora vrhunskih športnikov in športnic je pokazala na nekatere razlike, ki so tipične za posamezni spol in so družbeno pogojene. Športniki moštvenih športov se statistično značilno razlikujejo v tekmovalnosti in usmeritvi na zmagovanje. Faktorizacija vrednotnega prostora vrhunskega športa je potrdila domnevo o podobni hierarhični urejenosti vrednot, kot je bila ugotovljena na vzorcu neselekcionirane populacije. Diskriminantna analiza nakazuje na obstoj dveh statističmo značilnih diskriminantnih funkcij, ki razlikujeta celoten vzorec, glede na vrsto športa in glede na spol, kar še bolj poudarja potrebo po individualnem pristopu v procesu vadbe in tekmov

Keywords (Slovenian)

motivacija, vrednote, vrhunski šport, tekmovalno-storilnostna motivacija, športne orientacije, samomotivacija.

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