Volume 24, No.1

Authors: Johanna Weber, Linda van Maanen-Coppens, Manfred Wegner

PERFORMANCE DEMANDS ON FEMALE TEAM HANDBALL GOALKEEPERS

ZAHTEVE GLEDE USPEŠNOSTI VRATARK V EKIPNEM ROKOMETU

Abstract (English)

Success in competitive sports is limited by constitutional, conditional, coordinative, technical, psychological and tactical factors. These factors differ by position in team handball, and the differences have yet to be sufficiently specified. Especially for female goalkeepers, the demands remain unclear. Testing for goalkeeper performance demands in handball reveals that previous values do not match those of field players. Still, the goalkeepers tested played in top leagues and apparently met game standards for their position. Consequently, the core demands of the goalkeeper position must be clarified, as well as how goalkeepers differ from field players. To this end, 654 female handball players from German leagues of all performance levels were tested for the above-mentioned factors. Each player's handballspecific expertise was used as the independent variable while the performance differences between positions were seen as dependent variables, as was goalkeeper performance. There
were significant differences between goalkeeper and field player performance. Core position demands for goalkeepers were experience (“anticipation expertise”), ambidexterity, low action/state orientation after malperformance and the 30m sprint (fastest of two attempts).
Results also suggest that goalkeepers should orient their performance on that of field players for the following factors; sit-ups, reaction test, jump & reach, 10 and 20m sprint, Cooper test, throwing speed, wall passing, slalom dribbling, tactics test, hope for success, net hope, selfoptimization,
self-impediment, lack of activation, and action/state orientation after
malperformance. Coaches should implement specialized training for goalkeepers.

Keywords (English)

performance, psychological factors, positions, goalkeepers, specialization

Abstract (Slovenian)

V tekmovalnih športih je uspeh omejen z dejavniki, povezanimi s telesno zgradbo in pripravljenostjo ter s tehničnimi, psihološkimi in taktičnimi dejavniki.
Ti dejavniki se razlikujejo glede na položaj v ekipnem rokometu, razlike pa je treba še ustrezno opredeliti. Zlasti v primeru vratark so zahteve še vedno nejasne. Testiranje zahtev glede uspešnosti vratark v rokometu je pokazalo, da vrednosti niso enake kot pri ostalih igralkah. Ne glede na to pa so vse testirane vratarke igrale v najvišjih ligah ter so očitno izpolnjevale merila za svoj igralni položaj. Zato je treba glavne zahteve za igralni položaj vratarke natančno opredeliti ter obenem določiti, po čem se vratarke razlikujejo od drugih igralk. Da bi lahko preučili zgoraj navedene dejavnike, smo testirali 654 rokometašic, ki igrajo v nemških ligah na vseh ravneh uspešnosti. Veščine vsake igralke, značilne za rokometno igro, so bile uporabljene kot neodvisne spremenljivke, medtem ko so bile razlike v uspešnosti med različnimi položaji igralk obravnavane kot odvisne spremenljivke, npr. uspešnost vratarke. Med uspešnostjo vratarke in uspešnostjo drugih igralk so bile značilne razlike. Glavne zahteve za položaj vratarke so bile izkušnje ('sposobnost predvidevanja'), obojeročnost, tendenca k nižjemu aktivnemu stanju po neuspehu ter 30-metrski šprint (hitrejši od dveh poskusov).
Rezultati kažejo tudi, da bi morale vratarke svojo uspešnost približati uspešnosti ostalih igralk v naslednjih dejavnikih: trebušnjaki, test odziva, skok in doseg, 10- in 20-metrski šprint, Cooperjev test, hitrost meta, prebijanje zidu, slalomsko preigravanje, test taktike, upanje na uspeh, splošno upanje, lastna optimizacija, oviranje samih sebe, pomanjkanje aktivnosti in tendenca k nižjemu aktivnemu stanju po neuspehu. Trenerji bi morali izvajati specializirane treninge za vratarke.

Keywords (Slovenian)

uspešnost, psihološki dejavniki, položaji, vratarke, specializacija

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