Volume 23, No.1

Authors: Kateřina Bartošová, Iva Burešová, Veronika Dacerová, Adriana Valcová

RITUALS IN SPORT

RITUALI V ŠPORTU

Abstract (English)

The aim of this study was to create a literature review on the influence of rituals in sports on elite and non-elite athletes and to try to find the circumstances under which they are especially committed to enacting rituals prior to a game (ritual commitment). The article also discusses the psychological risks and benefits of rituals in sport and the implications that relate to this topic. Review covers the time period from 2010 to 2016, while researchers were searching for the terms "sports rituals, sport superstition, religious rituals in sport”. Superstitious behavior was given to connection with type of sport, position in a team, locus of control and anxiety, gender differences, internality, controllability, identity and uncertainty. However, significant differences were found in the results. Several studies found that the use of superstitious rituals did not significantly reduce competitive anxiety levels or vary in frequency between genders while others postulate that superstitious rituals can reduce anxiety and increase self-confidence.

Keywords (English)

superstitious rituals, anxiety, self confidance, locus of control

Abstract (Slovenian)

Namen te raziskave je bil pripraviti pregled literature o vplivu ritualov v športu pri vrhunskih in ostalih športnikih ter poskušati opredeliti okoliščine, v katerih športniki še posebej predano izvajajo rituale pred tekmovanjem (predanost ritualom). Članek obravnava tudi psihološka tveganja in koristi ritualov v športu ter s tem povezane posledice. Pregled zajema obdobje 2010–2016, raziskovalci pa so iskali izraze, kot so »športni rituali, vraževerje v športu, verski rituali v športu«. Vraževerno obnašanje je bilo povezano z vrsto športa, položajem v ekipi, mestom nadzora in tesnobo, razlikami med spoloma, ponotranjenostjo, sposobnostjo nadzora, identiteto in negotovostjo. V rezultatih so se pokazale značilne razlike. Več študij je pokazalo, da izvajanje vraževernih ritualov ni pomembno zmanjšalo tekmovalne tesnobe ali se razlikovalo v pogostosti glede na spol, nekatere pa so si postavile za izhodišče, da vraževerni rituali lahko zmanjšajo tesnobo in povečajo samozavest.

Keywords (Slovenian)

vraževerni rituali, tesnoba, samozavest, mesto nadzora

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